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Appendix B


Western Music Historical Timeline





Date
Music Events
World Events

Antiquity

600-100 B.C.E.
Hebrew Psalms
Height of Greek Culture
100-200 A.D.
Early Christian Hymns, Psalms
Roman Empire
350 A.D.
Beginnings of Byzantine music
Conversion of Rome to Christianity, Constantine

Early Christian Era

390 A.D.
Regular use of Hymns in Church under St. Ambrose in Milan

590 A.D.
Liturgical Plainchant established in Rome during Papacy of Gregory the Great
Justinian in Constantinople
600s
Golden age of Byzantine Hymnody


Early Medieval-Era Of Frankish-Roman Chant

800s
Shift in center of creation and use of Chant to Frankish Kingdom under Charlemagne
Charlemagne crowned first western Roman Emperor
900s
First examples of Parallel Organum
Russia accepts Christianity

Medieval-Romanesque

1000s
Development of Melismatic Organum

1000-1050
Guido of Arezzo invents notation system used today
Normans invade England
1000-1200
Gregorian Chant codified
Age of Crusades
1050-1250
Notre Dame School of Paris is center of music study and composition


Medieval-Gothic

1100s-1200s
French Troubadours and Trouveres flourish, German Meistersingers and Minnesingers
University of Paris, Oxford and Cambridge Universities founded
1160
Leonin of Paris, Magnus Liber Organi; among earliest composers named in manuscripts

1181
Perotin of Notre Dame School, Four-part Polyphony

1250
Polyphonic motets become primary type of composition
Marco Polo travels to China

Medieval-Ars Nova

1300s
Golden Age of secular music (Ars Nova): love songs in Ballade, Lais and Virilais forms; Phillip de Vitry, Machaut
100 Years War
1340
Machaut's Messe de Notre Dame is first complete polyphonic setting of the Ordinary of the Mass

1350
Landini famous in Florence as organist and composer of madrigals and ballads
Chaucer, Canterbury Tales

Black Plague kills quarter of European population
1400-1450
In England John Dunstable introduces the interval of a third into chords, making a new, modern sound; Guillaume Dufay is master of French Style
Fall of Byzantine Empire

Invention of Printing

Early Renaissance

1450-1500
Johannes Ockeghem is first truly Renaissance music master; he leads development of music in polyphonic textures with evenly flowing rhythm
Medicis rule in Florence
1473
Sistine Choir established in Rome Masses, motets chansons in new, more expressive style; Musicians come from Northern Europe to Italy and develop Renaissance style; composers include Isaac, Obrecht, Josquin
Botticelli in Florence

Michangelo active in Rome
1501
First book of printed music: Petrucci's Harmonice musices odhecaton
Columbus discovers America
1500-1520
Josquin des Prez recognized as most famous composer of the Age
Machiavelli, The Prince
1510-1550
Luther's reforms stressed by Reformation churches include simplified, congregational hymns sung in the vernacular in Protestant churches of North; Isaac and Sendl active in North
Reformation begins in Germany
1520s
Janequin, Sermisy and Marot develop Parisian chanson style

1527
Adrian Willaert becomes choirmaster of St. Mark's in Venice; begins to create polychoral style and introduces instruments to liturgical music

1535
Verdelot develops Renaissance Madrigal
Henry VIII in England

High Renaissance

1550-1600
Palestrina and Victoria help establish Rome as center of Sacred music; Cipriano de Rore, Philippe de Monte,Orlando di Lasso, Giaches de Wert and Luca Marenzio are leading composers of secular music; Italians gradually displace northerners as music masters
Council of Trent to Reform Catholic Church begins

Age of Exploration and Discovery
1570
Thomas Tallis, English court organist, composes Lamentations of Jeremiah
Reign of Elizabeth in England
1571-1594
Palestrina leads reform of music for Vatican in the Catholic Counter Reformation; William Byrd brings Palestrina style to England

1588
Musica Transalpina translated into English, brings Italian madrigal style to England and begins Elizabethan Age in music


Renaissance-Mannerism

1580-1610
Luzzaschi and Gesualdo bring extreme chromaticism to madrigal, establish mannerism style
Virginia Colony founded
1585-1605
Renaissance polyphonic sacred and secular music culminates in music of Claudio Monteverdi, especially Madrigal Books 1 to 5

1590-1630
Golden Age of English Elizabethan music includes composers Thomas Morley, Thomas Weelkes, John Wilbye, Orlando Gibbons and John Dowland


Baroque Era

1590s
Development of Monody

1594
Birth of Opera – Peri's drama, Dafne, Florence

1600
Peri and Caccini, Euridice, first true opera

1607
Monteverdi, L'Orfeo, first great opera

1614-1635
Monteverdi, Books 6 to 9 of Madrigals; Seconda Prattica, beginning of development of figured bass, music being written in score notation and emphasis on textures based on chords
30 Years War
1634
Frescobaldi active in Rome – first significant composer for keyboard instruments

1650s
Oratorio develops in Rome under Caccini; sonatas, early cantatas and concertos begin to appear

1652
Lully enters service of Louis XIV in Versailles, begins grand French style

1668
Buxtehude becomes organist at Luebeck; North German style of organ playing, early Church Cantata develop

1680s
Arcangelo Corelli develops modern style of violin playing; Francoise Couperin represents style gallant in France; Henry Purcell active in England
Louis XIV in France
1680-1700
Instrumental music flourishes: trio-sonata, solo sonata, concerto grosso, solo and ensemble suites, a wide variety of keyboard genres all become popular

1685
J. S. Bach, G. F. Handel, and A. Scarlatti born

1710-1735
G. F. Handel writes extraordinary Italian style operas in London

1720s
Antonio Vivaldi expands baroque concerto types

1723-1750
J. S. Bach is Kantor of St. Thomas', Leipzig; creates astonishing repertory of sacred music
Frederick the Great in Prussia
1735
Jean-Phillipe Rameau brings French baroque style to its zenith, composes opera, Les Indes Galantes

1742
Handel writes Messiah

1750
J. S. Bach dies; C. P. E. Bach, youngest son of J. S. active at court of Frederick the Great and ushers in Rococo period


Classical Era

1750-1800
Development of modern orchestra, genre of symphony, classic period forms
American Declaration of Independence
1752
J.J. Rousseau represents rococo style in France

1761
Franz Joseph Haydn begins 30-year service with Esterhazys, develops form of symphony, creates string quartet
War of Independence
1786
W. A. Mozart composes the opera, The Marriage of Figaro, becomes one of greatest composers of operas, Symphonies, sonatas and concertos in history

1795
Ludwig von Beethoven debuts as pianist
French Revolution
1795-1827
Beethoven grows deaf, but becomes a legendary composer of symphonies, sonatas, chamber music; Beethoven ushers in Romantic Period by expanding All genres, emphasizing emotion in his music and breaking down classic period formal designs
Napoleon

Romantic Era

1810-1822
G. Rossini popularizes Italian bel canto style

1815-1828
Franz Schubert popularizes genre of art song

1830
Hector Berlioz composes Symphonie Fantastique in Paris, the first programmatic symphony

1831-1840
Bellini and Donizetti bring bel canto opera to its peak
Age of Industrialization
1835-1845
Virtuoso performance at peak; F. Chopin, F. Liszt expand boundaries of piano technique; N. Pagannini creates virtuoso violin style; F. Mendelssohn, R. and C. Schumann develop art song and chamber music; G. Meyerbeer establishes French Grand Opera

1853
G. Verdi has first performances of operas Il Trovatore and La Traviata, establishing a new more serious style of Italian opera
Unification of Italy
1853-1874
Richard Wagner composes epic cycle of operas, The Ring of the Nibelung
American Civil War
1865
Wagner experiments with chromatic harmony in opera, Tristan und Isolde; begins dissolution of traditional system of harmony
Unified Germany
1874
First production of M. Mussorgsky's opera, Boris Godunov, in St. Petersburg; expresses nationalism in Music

1876-1890
J. Brahms reinvents musical classicism in a romantic style; composes symphonies, concertos, art songs, chamber music, large-scale choral/orchestral works

1879
P. I. Tchaikovsky premieres his opera, Eugene Onegin; Tchaikovsky composes in a continental style, but becomes most well-known Russian composer

1880-1900
A. Bruckner composes monumental symphonies, G. Mahler begins to compose symphonies, orchestral songs that further break down traditional harmony and move towards modern age in music

1886
R. Strauss begins tone poem, Don Juan, solidifies turn to modernism
Age of Nationalism
1894
C. Debussy composes Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un faune, establishes musical impressionism

1896
G. Puccini popularizes Italian opera Verismo style with La Boheme


Modernism

1890-1922
Charles Ives writes songs, orchestral pieces and chamber music in a radically new way

1900-1920
Jazz originates in New Orleans
First Air Flight
1905
R. Strauss' opera, Salome, written expresses modern aesthetics; Debussy's La Mer further breaks down traditional formal and harmonic patterns

1908
A. Schoenberg writes Three Piano Pieces, Op.11, first major atonal work; B. Bartok begins writing music based on Hungarian folk songs; his highly personal style includes chord clusters, highly dissonant sounds and driving rhythms

1909
R. Vaughan-Williams explores modal harmonies in Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis

1910-1913
Igor Stravinsky composes three modernist ballets, Firebird, Petrouchka, and Rite of Spring that solidify new age

1913
M. Ravel composes ballet, Daphnis and Chloe, further establishing modernism
World War I
1923
A. Schoenberg perfects 12-tone technique (serialism) in Five Piano Pieces, Op. 23
Russian Revolution
1924
George Gershwin writes Rhapsody in Blue, a major concert piece in a jazz idiom
Rise of Fascism
1925
First performance of A. Berg's opera, Wozzeck, an expressionist opera written using 12-tone technique; Berg utilized the technique with more freedom than other 12-tone composers

1926
D. Shostakovich composes first of fifteen symphonies; becomes with Prokofief the most significant Soviet composers of the 20th Century

1928
Anton Webern composes his Symphony, Op 21 in 12-tone technique; his music pushes extremes of brevity, intensity and structure

1930s
Paul Hindemith composes great number of works in a linear counterpoint style; his opera, Mathis der Maler, reflects stress of Nazi movement; A. Copland begins to write ballets and tone poems that define America in music

1935
Gershwin's Porgy and Bess is first successful American opera
World War II
1945
B. Britten composes Peter Grimes, the most important British opera

1949
O. Messiaen experiments with total serialism in Quatre Etudes de rythme; his music is highly personal, mystical and religious

1950s
Beginnings of electronic music, first use of synthesizer
Korean War
1952
J. Cage experiments with aleatoric music, creates famous piece, 4'3"

1952-1953
S. Barber composes Hermit Songs, representing traditional, mainstream American music

1954
P. Boulez, Le Marteau sans maitre, furthers structural and serial approaches

1955-1956
K. Stockhausen, Song of the Boys, early electonic music

1958
Edgar Varese, Poeme electronique, builds on his interest on timbre to create a large electronic work
Vietnamese War
1960
K. Penderecki writes extremely dissonant,aleatoric music typified by Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima

1962
Britten composes War Requiem, a masterpiece of choral/orchestral music
First Moon Walk
1970
G. Crumb creates new sounds out of ordinary instruments, Ancient Voices of Children and Black Angels are contrasting examples

1970s
Growth of Minimalist style, P. Glass, Satyagraha, T. Riley, In C, S. Reich, Violin Phase, J. Adams, Nixon In China, exemplify movement

1980s-Present
Huge increase in diversity of music and musical styles; increasingly women are becoming major composers; people of color have significant representation in all areas of music; non-western music blends with western; electronics blend with traditional sounds; rock, pop, jazz, roots and classical styles blend together.

The "decategorization" of music.
Soviet Union Dissolved